Pregnancy and Glomerular Disease: A Systematic Review of the Literature with Management Guidelines.
Blom K., Odutayo A., Bramham K., Hladunewich MA.
During pregnancy, CKD increases both maternal and fetal risk. Adverse maternal outcomes include progression of underlying renal dysfunction, worsening of urine protein, and hypertension, whereas adverse fetal outcomes include fetal loss, intrauterine growth restriction, and preterm delivery. As such, pregnancy in young women with CKD is anxiety provoking for both the patient and the clinician providing care, and because the heterogeneous group of glomerular diseases often affects young women, this is an area of heightened concern. In this invited review, we discuss pregnancy outcomes in young women with glomerular diseases. We have performed a systematic review in attempt to better understand these outcomes among young women with primary GN, we review the studies of pregnancy outcomes in lupus nephritis, and finally, we provide a potential construct for management. Although it is safe to say that the vast majority of young women with glomerular disease will have a live birth, the counseling that we can provide with respect to individualized risk remains imprecise in primary GN because the existing literature is extremely dated, and all management principles are extrapolated primarily from studies in lupus nephritis and diabetes. As such, the study of pregnancy outcomes and management strategies in these rare diseases requires a renewed interest and a dedicated collaborative effort.