Transforming growth factor-beta isoform expression in human ovarian tumours.
Bartlett JM., Langdon SP., Scott WN., Love SB., Miller EP., Katsaros D., Smyth JF., Miller WR.
The expression patterns of members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family were analysed in 96 primary ovarian tumours by RNAse protection assay. mRNA for the three mammalian isoforms, TGF-beta 1, TGF-beta 2 and TGF-beta 3, was detected in 46, 66 and 66% of 74 malignant tumours, respectively, with the predominant patterns of expression being either dual or triple co-expression. TGF-beta II receptor expression, detected by reverse-transcription PCR, was present in 92% malignant tumours. Expression patterns were similar between malignant, borderline and benign tumours, although TGF-beta 1 incidence was reduced in benign tumours. In malignant tumours, the incidence of TGF-beta 1 expression was less than that of either TGF-beta 2 (P = 0.02) or TGF-beta 3 (P = 0.0014), while in both malignant and borderline tumours, TGF-beta 2 and TGF-beta 3 tended to be co-expressed. Aneuploid tumours were more likely than diploid tumours to express multiple rather than single forms of TGF-beta (P = 0.018). The incidence of TGF-beta 1 expression was reduced in PR-moderate/rich (PR > 20 fmol/mg protein) relative to PR-negative/poor tumours (P = 0.048), while TGF-beta 3 expression was increased in ER-moderate/rich (ER > 20 fmol/mg protein) tumours compared to ER-negative/poor tumours (P = 0.0012). Expression of TGF-beta 3, but not TGF-beta 1 or TGF-beta 2, was associated with advanced stage disease (P = 0.014) and, in the malignant group, reduced survival (P = 0.02) with a hazard ratio of 2.6. These data suggest a possible role for TGF-beta 3 in the progression of ovarian cancer.