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  • Secular trends in the incidence and prevalence of gout in Denmark from 1995 to 2015: a nationwide register-based study.

    18 January 2019

    Objectives: To investigate temporal trends in the incidence and prevalence of gout in the adult Danish population. Methods: Using the nationwide Danish National Patient Registry, we calculated the number of incident gout patients (per 100 000 person-years) within each 1 year period from 1995 to 2015 and the prevalence of gout in 2000 and 2015. Further, we calculated age- and gender-specific incidence rates of gout from 1995 to 2015. Results: We identified a total of 45 685 incident gout patients (72.9% males) with a mean age of 65 years (s.d. 16) at diagnosis. In both genders, an increase in age-standardized incidence rates was observed from 32.3/100 000 (95% CI 30.7, 33.9) in 1995 to 57.5/100 000 (95% CI 55.6, 59.5) in 2015 (P < 0.001). Similar trends were observed for 8950 cases diagnosed in rheumatology departments. We likewise observed an increase in the prevalence of gout from 0.29% (95% CI 0.29, 0.30) in 2000 to 0.68% (95% CI 0.68, 0.69) in 2015. Conclusions: The annual incidence rate of gout increased by almost 80% in Denmark between 1995 and 2015. The prevalence increased by nearly 130% between 2000 and 2015. Reasons for this are unknown but may include an increase in risk factors (e.g. obesity, diabetes mellitus), longer life expectancy and increased awareness of the disease among patients and/or health professionals.

  • Partial mid-portion Achilles tear resulting in substantial improvement in pain and function in an amateur long-distance runner.

    3 November 2018

    This case presents symptom resolution for a long-distance runner with chronic Achilles tendinopathy (AT), following a partial tear of his Achilles tendon. The patient reported a sudden pain during a morning run, with preserved function. Three hours postinjury, he was reviewed in a musculoskeletal clinic. An ultrasound scan confirmed a partial Achilles tear, associated with significant Doppler activity. His index of AT severity The Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment - Achilles Questionnaire (VISA-A) 4 hours postinjury was markedly higher compared with 2 weeks preinjury, indicating reduced symptom severity. A follow-up scan 4 weeks postinjury showed minimal mid-portion swelling and no signs of the tear. His VISA-A score showed continued symptom improvement. This case represents resolution of tendinopathic symptomatology post partial Achilles tear. While the natural histories of AT and Achilles tears remain unknown, this case may indicate that alongside the known role of loading, inflammation may be a secondary mediator central to the successful resolution of AT pain.

  • Comparison of alternative falls data collection methods in the Prevention of Falls Injury Trial (PreFIT).

    3 November 2018

    BACKGROUND: Prospective, monthly diaries are recommended for collecting falls data but are burdensome and expensive. OBJECTIVE: To compare characteristics of fallers and estimates of fall rates by method of data collection. DESIGN: and Setting: A methodology study nested within a large cluster RCT. We randomised 9803 older adults from 63 general practices across England to receive one of three fall prevention interventions. Participants provided a retrospective report of falls in postal questionnaires mailed every four months. A separate randomisation allocated participants to receive prospective monthly falls diaries for one simultaneous four month period. RESULTS: Falls diaries were returned by 7762/9375 (83%); of which 6306/9375 (67%) participants reported the same number of falls on both data sources. Diary non-responders were older and had poorer levels of physical and mental health. Analysis of time-points where both data sources were available showed the falls rate on diaries was consistently higher than on the questionnaire (mean rate: 0.16 v 0.12 falls per person month observation). Diary allocation was associated with a higher rate of withdrawal from the main trial. CONCLUSIONS: Diary completion was associated with sample attrition. We found on average a 32% difference in falls rates between the two data sources. Retrospective and prospective falls data are not consistently reported when collected simultaneously.

  • Does Structured Exercise Improve Cognitive Impairment in People with Mild to Moderate Dementia? A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis from a Confirmatory Randomised Controlled Trial: The Dementia and Physical Activity (DAPA) Trial.

    3 November 2018

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that physical exercise could slow dementia progression. However, evidence for the cost effectiveness of structured exercise is conflicting and based on small trials. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to compare the cost effectiveness of a tailored, structured, moderate- to high-intensity exercise programme versus usual care in people with mild to moderate dementia. METHODS: An economic evaluation was conducted from the UK National Health Service and personal social services perspective, based on data from a large randomised controlled trial. The primary clinical outcome was the participant reported ADAS-Cog (Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale) at 12 months. Costs (£; 2014-2015 prices) were collected prospectively over a 12-month follow-up period. A bivariate regression of costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), with multiple imputation of missing data, was conducted with the view to estimating the incremental cost per QALY gained and the incremental net monetary benefit (INMB) associated with the exercise programme plus usual care versus usual care. Sensitivity analyses were undertaken to assess the impact of uncertainty surrounding aspects of the economic evaluation, and pre-specified subgroup analyses explored heterogeneity in the cost-effectiveness results. RESULTS: Participants (n = 494) were randomised to exercise plus usual care or usual care only. By 12 months the mean ADAS-Cog score had worsened slightly to 25.2 (standard deviation [SD] 12.3) in the exercise arm and 23.8 (SD 10.4) in the usual care: difference - 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) - 2.6 to - 0.2 (p = 0.03). The mean (standard error [SE]) costs over 12 months for experimental versus control was £5945 (US$7856) versus £4597 (US$6574), respectively; (difference: £1347 [$1926]; p = 0.0426). Mean (SE) QALY estimates were 0.787 (0.012) versus 0.826 (0.019), respectively (p = 0.090). The probability that the exercise programme is cost effective was < 1% across cost-effectiveness thresholds. INMBs ranged between -£2601 (US$3719) and £2158 (US$3086) at cost-effectiveness thresholds between £15,000 (US$21,450) and £30,000 (US$42,900) per QALY. The cost-effectiveness results remained robust to several sensitivity and subgroup analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Building on the clinical results of the trial, which showed that the structured exercise programme evaluated does not slow cognitive impairment in people with mild to moderate dementia, this economic evaluation shows that the programme is not cost effective.

  • Can occupational therapist-led home environmental assessment prevent falls in older people? A modified cohort randomised controlled trial protocol.

    3 November 2018

    INTRODUCTION: Falls and fall-related injuries are a serious cause of morbidity and cost to society. Environmental hazards are implicated as a major contributor to falls among older people. A recent Cochrane review found an environmental assessment, undertaken by an occupational therapist, to be an effective approach to reducing falls. However, none of the trials included a cost-effectiveness evaluation in the UK setting. This protocol describes a large multicentre trial investigating the clinical and cost-effectiveness of environmental assessment and modification within the home with the aim of preventing falls in older people. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A two-arm, modified cohort randomised controlled trial, conducted within England, with 1299 community-dwelling participants aged 65 years and above, who are at an increased risk of falls. Participants will be randomised 2:1 to receive either usual care or home assessment and modification. The primary outcome is rate of falls (falls/person/time) over 12 months assessed by monthly patient self-report falls calendars. Secondary self-reported outcome measures include: the proportion of single and multiple fallers, time to first fall over a 12-month period, quality of life (EuroQoL EQ-5D-5L) and health service utilisation at 4, 8 and 12 months. A nested qualitative study will examine the feasibility of providing the intervention and explore barriers, facilitators, workload implications and readiness to employ these interventions into routine practice. An economic evaluation will assess value for money in terms of cost per fall averted. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study protocol (including the original application and subsequent amendments) received a favourable ethical opinion from National Health Service West of Scotland REC 3. The trial results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and at conference presentations. A summary of the findings will be sent to participants. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN22202133; Pre-results.