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  • Randomized comparison of the nobori biolimus A9-eluting stent with the sirolimus-eluting stent in patients with stenosis in native coronary arteries

    27 October 2017

    Objectives: The aim of this randomized-controlled trial is to compare Biolimus A9-eluting stent (Nobori) to sirolimus eluting stent (Cypher). Background: The Nobori coronary stent is coated only abluminally with a biodegradable polymer, poly-lactic acid, and the antiproliferative agent Biolimus A9. This stent has been studied in randomized trials versus Taxus Express and Taxus Liberte and showed noninferiority and superiority for in-stent late loss. This is the first randomized trial of Nobori stent versus Cypher stent. Methods: We conducted a randomized (3:2), controlled trial comparing Nobori and Cypher, in 335 patients (198 Nobori and 137 Cypher) at 15 centers in Japan. Patients with de-novo lesions in up to two native coronary arteries were considered for enrollment. The primary endpoint was freedom from target vessel failure (TVF), a composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization at 9 months. Results: At 9 months, the primary endpoint of freedom from TVF was 92.6% in Nobori and 93.8% in Cypher arm (noninferiority test P \textless 0.001). As main secondary endpoints, the in-stent late loss was 0.12 +/- 0.30 mm and 0.14 +/- 0.34 mm in Nobori and Cypher stents, respectively. Target lesion revascularization was 0.5% in Nobori and 3.9% in Cypher treated patients (P = 0.04). Definite and probable stent thromboses were not recorded in any patient. Conclusions: Despite the relatively small number of patients, this well controlled clinical trial confirmed the primary hypothesis of non-inferiority of the Nobori Biolimus A9-eluting stent to the Cypher sirolimus-eluting stent for freedom from TVF. Both stents showed excellent midterm results. (c) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • Prescribing practices and clinical predictors of glucose-lowering therapy within the first year in people with newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes.

    12 January 2018

    AIM: To examine prescribing practices and predictors of glucose-lowering therapy within the first year following diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes mellitus in a clinical care setting. METHODS: We followed people enrolled in the Danish Centre for Strategic Research in Type 2 Diabetes (DD2) cohort from outpatient hospital clinics and general practices throughout Denmark in 2010-2013. We used Poisson regression to compute age- and gender-adjusted risk ratios (RRs). RESULTS: Among 1158 new Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients, 302 (26%) did not receive glucose-lowering therapy within the first year, 723 (62%) received monotherapy [685 (95%) with metformin], and 133 (12%) received more than one drug. Predictors of receiving any vs. no therapy and combination vs. monotherapy were: age < 40 years [RR: 1.29 (95% CI: 1.16-1.44) and 3.60 (95% CI: 2.36-5.50)]; high Charlson Comorbidity Index [RRs: 1.20 (95% CI: 1.05-1.38) and 2.08 (95% CI: 1.16-3.72)]; central obesity [RRs: 1.23 (95% CI: 1.04-1.44) and 1.93 (95% CI: 0.76-4.94)]; fasting blood glucose of ≥ 7.5 mmol/l [RRs: 1.25 (95% CI: 1.10-1.42) and 1.94 (95% CI: 1.02-3.71)]; and HbA1c ≥ 59 mmol/mol (≥ 7.5%) [RR: 1.26 (95% CI: 1.20-1.32) and 2.86 (95% CI: 1.97-4.14)]. Weight gain ≥ 30 kg since age 20, lack of physical exercise and C-peptide of < 300 pmol/l also predicted therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Comorbidity, young age, central obesity and poor baseline glycaemic control are important predictors of therapy one year after Type 2 diabetes mellitus debut.

  • Modifiable clinical and lifestyle factors are associated with elevated alanine aminotransferase levels in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients: results from the nationwide DD2 study.

    30 November 2017

    BACKGROUND: Current literature lacks data on markers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. We therefore, conducted a cross-sectional study to examine modifiable clinical and lifestyle factors associated with elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels as a marker of NAFLD in new T2DM patients. METHODS: Alanine aminotransferase levels were measured in 1026 incident T2DM patients enrolled in the nationwide Danish Centre for Strategic Research in Type 2 Diabetes (DD2) cohort. We examined prevalence of elevated ALT (>38 IU/L for women and >50 IU/L for men) and calculated prevalence ratios associated with clinical and lifestyle factors using Poisson regression. We examined the association with other biomarkers by linear regression. RESULTS: The median value of ALT was 24 IU/L (interquartile range: 18-32 IU/L) in women and 30 IU/L (interquartile range: 22-41 IU/L) in men. Elevated ALT was found in 16% of incident T2DM patients. The risk of elevated ALT was increased in patients who were <40 years old at diabetes debut [adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR): 1.96, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15-3.33], in those with alcohol overuse (>14/>21 drinks per week for women/men) (aPR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.03-2.50), and in those with no regular physical activity (aPR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.04-1.93). Obesity and metabolic syndrome per se showed no association with elevated ALT when adjusted for other markers, whereas we found positive associations of ALT with increased C-peptide (β = 0.14, 95% CI: 0.06-0.21) and fasting blood glucose (β = 0.07, 95% CI: 0.03-0.11). CONCLUSIONS: Among newly diagnosed T2DM patients, several modifiable clinical and lifestyle factors are independent markers of elevated ALT levels.

  • Randomized Comparison of a Biodegradable Polymer Ultrathin Strut Sirolimus-Eluting Stent With a Biodegradable Polymer Biolimus-Eluting Stent in Patients Treated With Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: The SORT OUT VII Trial.

    12 January 2018

    BACKGROUND: Coronary drug-eluting stents with biodegradable polymers have been designed to improve safety and efficacy. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Scandinavian Organization for Randomized Trials With Clinical Outcome (SORT OUT) VII trial-a large-scale registry-based randomized, multicenter, single-blind, 2-arm, noninferiority trial-compared 2 biodegradable polymer drug-eluting stents: the thin-strut cobalt-chromium sirolimus-eluting Orsiro stent and the stainless steel biolimus-eluting Nobori stent in an all-comer patient population. The primary end point target lesion failure was a composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction (not related to other than index lesion), or target lesion revascularization within 1 year, analyzed by intention to treat (noninferiority margin of 3.0%). Clinically driven event detection based on Danish registries was used. A total of 1261 patients were assigned to receive the sirolimus-eluting stent (1590 lesions) and 1264 patients to the biolimus-eluting stent (1588 lesions). At 1 year, the composite end point target lesion failure occurred in 48 patients (3.8%) in the sirolimus-eluting group and in 58 patients (4.6%) in the biolimus-eluting group (absolute risk difference, -0.78% [upper limit of 1-sided 95% confidence interval, 0.61%]; P<0.0001). Rates of definite stent thrombosis occurred in 5 (0.4%) of the sirolimus-eluting group compared with 15 (1.2%) biolimus-eluting stent-treated patients (rate ratio, 0.33; 95% confidence interval, 0.12-0.92; P=0.034), which largely was attributable to a lower risk of subacute definite stent thrombosis: 0.1% versus 0.6% (rate ratio, 0.12; 95% confidence interval, 0.02-1.00; P=0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The thin-strut sirolimus-eluting Orsiro stent was noninferior to the biolimus-eluting Nobori stent in unselected patients for target lesion failure at 1 year. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01879358.

  • Association of parental history of type 2 diabetes with age, lifestyle, anthropometric factors, and clinical severity at type 2 diabetes diagnosis: results from the DD2 study.

    14 December 2017

    BACKGROUND: We investigated whether parental history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is associated with age, lifestyle, anthropometric factors, and clinical severity at the time of T2D diagnosis. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study based on the Danish Centre for Strategic Research in Type 2 Diabetes cohort. We examined the prevalence ratios (PR) of demographic, lifestyle, anthropometric, and clinical factors according to parental history, using Poisson regression adjusting for age and gender. RESULTS: Of 2825 T2D patients, 34% (n = 964) had a parental history of T2D. Parental history was associated with younger age at diagnosis [adjusted (a)PR 1.66, 95% confidence interval: 1.19, 2.31) for age <40 years; aPR 1.36 (95% confidence interval: 1.24, 1.48) for ages 40-59 years] and with higher baseline fasting plasma glucose [≥7.5 mmol/L, aPR 1.47 (95% confidence interval: 1.20, 1.80)], and also tended to be associated with lower beta cell function. In contrast, patients both with and without a parental history had similar occurrence of central obesity [91% vs. 91%], weight gain ≥30 kg since age 20 [52% vs. 53%], and lack of regular physical activity [60% vs. 58%]. Presence of diabetes complications or comorbidities at T2D diagnosis was not associated with parental history. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of an association between parental history and adverse lifestyle factors indicates that T2D patients do not inherit a particular propensity for overeating or inactivity, whereas patients with a parental history may have more severe pancreatic beta cell dysfunction at diagnosis.

  • Lifestyle and clinical factors associated with elevated C-reactive protein among newly diagnosed Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: a cross-sectional study from the nationwide DD2 cohort.

    30 November 2017

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to examine the prevalence of and modifiable factors associated with elevated C-reactive Protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation, in men and women with newly diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (DM) in a population-based setting. METHODS: CRP was measured in 1,037 patients (57% male) with newly diagnosed Type 2 DM included in the prospective nationwide Danish Centre for Strategic Research in Type 2 Diabetes (DD2) project. We assessed the prevalence of elevated CRP and calculated relative risks (RR) examining the association of CRP with lifestyle and clinical factors by Poisson regression, stratified by gender. We used linear regression to examine the association of CRP with other biomarkers. RESULTS: The median CRP value was 2.1 mg/L (interquartile range, 1.0 - 4.8 mg/L). In total, 405 out of the 1,037 Type 2 DM patients (40%) had elevated CRP levels (>3.0 mg/L). More women (46%) than men (34%) had elevated CRP. Among women, a lower risk of elevated CRP was observed in patients receiving statins (adjusted RR (aRR) 0.7 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.6-0.9)), whereas a higher risk was seen in patients with central obesity (aRR 2.3 (95% CI 1.0-5.3)). For men, CRP was primarily elevated among patients with no regular physical activity (aRR 1.5 (95% CI 1.1-1.9)), previous cardiovascular disease (aRR1.5 (95% CI 1.2-1.9) and other comorbidity. For both genders, elevated CRP was 1.4-fold increased in those with weight gain >30 kg since age 20 years. Sensitivity analyses showed consistent results with the full analysis. The linear regression analysis conveyed an association between high CRP and increased fasting blood glucose. CONCLUSIONS: Among newly diagnosed Type 2 DM patients, 40% had elevated CRP levels. Important modifiable risk factors for elevated CRP may vary by gender, and include low physical activity for men and central obesity and absence of statin use for women.

  • Safety and Efficacy of Everolimus- Versus Sirolimus-Eluting Stents: 5-Year Results From SORT OUT IV.

    12 January 2018

    BACKGROUND: Long-term safety and efficacy for everolimus-eluting stents (EES) versus those of sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) are unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study compared 5-year outcomes for EES with those for SES from the SORT OUT IV (Scandinavian Organization for Randomized Trials with Clinical Outcome) trial. METHODS: Five-year follow-up was completed for 2,771 patients (99.9%). Primary endpoint was a composite of major adverse cardiac events (MACE), including cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), target vessel revascularization (TVR), and definite stent thrombosis. RESULTS: At 5-years, MACE occurred in 14.0% and 17.4% in the EES and SES groups, respectively (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.66 to 0.97; p = 0.02). The MACE rate did not differ significantly within the first year (HR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.71 to 1.19; p = 0.79), but from years 1 through 5, the MACE rate was lower with EES (HR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.55 to 0.90; p = 0.006; p interaction = 0.12). Definite stent thrombosis was lower with EES (0.4%) than with SES (2.0%; HR: 0.18, 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.46), with a lower risk of very late definite stent thrombosis in the EES group (0.2% vs. 1.4%, respectively; HR: 0.16, 95% CI: 0.05 to 0.53). When censoring the patients at the time of stent thrombosis, we found no significant differences between the 2 stent groups for MACE rates (HR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.73 to 1.08; p = 0.23), target lesion revascularization (HR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.64 to 1.27; p = 0.55), and MI (HR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.64 to 1.36; p = 0.72). CONCLUSIONS: At 5-year follow-up, MACE rate was significantly lower with EES- than with SES-treated patients, due largely due to a lower risk of very late definite stent thrombosis. (Randomized Clinical Comparison of the Xience V and the Cypher Coronary Stents in Non-selected Patients With Coronary Heart Disease [SORT OUT IV]; NCT00552877).

  • Long-Term Safety of Drug-Eluting and Bare-Metal Stents: Evidence From a Comprehensive Network Meta-Analysis.

    12 January 2018

    BACKGROUND: Previous meta-analyses have investigated the relative safety and efficacy profiles of different types of drug-eluting stents (DES) and bare-metal stents (BMS); however, most prior trials in these meta-analyses reported follow-up to only 1 year, and as such, the relative long-term safety and efficacy of these devices are unknown. Many recent studies have now reported extended follow-up data. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate the long-term safety and efficacy of durable polymer-based DES, bioabsorbable polymer-based biolimus-eluting stents (BES), and BMS by means of network meta-analysis. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials comparing DES to each other or to BMS were searched through MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases and proceedings of international meetings. Information on study design, inclusion and exclusion criteria, sample characteristics, and clinical outcomes was extracted. RESULTS: Fifty-one trials that included a total of 52,158 randomized patients with follow-up duration ≥3 years were analyzed. At a median follow-up of 3.8 years, cobalt-chromium everolimus-eluting stents (EES) were associated with lower rates of mortality, definite stent thrombosis (ST), and myocardial infarction than BMS, paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES), and sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) and less ST than BES. Phosphorylcholine-based zotarolimus-eluting stents had lower rates of definite ST than SES and lower rates of myocardial infarction than BMS and PES. The late rates of target-vessel revascularization were reduced with all DES compared with BMS, with cobalt-chromium EES, platinum chromium-EES, SES, and BES also having lower target-vessel revascularization rates than PES. CONCLUSIONS: After a median follow-up of 3.8 years, all DES demonstrated superior efficacy compared with BMS. Among DES, second-generation devices have substantially improved long-term safety and efficacy outcomes compared with first-generation devices.

  • Rates of Community-based Antibiotic Prescriptions and Hospital-treated Infections in Individuals With and Without Type 2 Diabetes: A Danish Nationwide Cohort Study, 2004-2012.

    9 January 2018

    BACKGROUND: The excess risk of antibiotic use and hospital-treated infections in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared with general population is poorly understood. METHODS: In a nationwide cohort of patients with incident T2D (n = 155 158) and an age-, gender-, and residence-matched comparison cohort (n = 774 017), we used Cox regression to compute rates and confounder-adjusted rate ratios (aRRs) of community-based antibiotic prescription redemption and hospital-treated infections during 2004-2012. RESULTS: The rates of community-based antibiotic prescriptions in the T2D and comparison cohorts were 364 vs 275 per 1000 person-years after a median follow-up of 1.1 years (aRR = 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23 to 1.25). The corresponding rates for hospital-treated infection were 58 vs 39 per 1000 person-years after a median follow-up of 2.8 years (aRR = 1.49; 95% CI, 1.47 to 1.52). The aRRs were increased particularly for urinary tract infections (UTIs, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.35 to 1.45), skin infections (1.50; 95% CI, 1.45 to 1.55), septicemia (1.60; 95% CI, 1.53 to 1.67), and tuberculosis (1.61; 95% CI, 1.25 to 2.06) and of community-based antibiotics prescribed for UTIs (1.31; 95% CI, 1.29 to 1.33), Staphylococcus aureus infections (1.32; 95% CI, 1.30 to 1.34), and mycobacterial infections (1.69; 95% CI, 1.36 to 2.09). The 1-year aRR declined from 1.89 (95% CI, 1.75 to 2.04) in 2004 to 1.59 (95% CI, 1.45 to 1.74) in 2011 for hospital-treated infection (trend P = .007) and from 1.31 (95% CI, 1.27 to 1.36) in 2004 to 1.26 (95% CI, 1.22 to 1.30) in 2011 for community-based antibiotic prescriptions (trend P = .006). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with T2D have rates of community-based antibiotic prescriptions and hospital-treated infections that are higher than for the general population.

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