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  • Web-based rehabilitation interventions for people with rheumatoid arthritis: A systematic review.

    28 June 2018

    Background Rehabilitation approaches for people with rheumatoid arthritis include joint protection, exercises and self-management strategies. Health interventions delivered via the web have the potential to improve access to health services overcoming time constraints, physical limitations, and socioeconomic and geographic barriers. The objective of this review is to determine the effects of web-based rehabilitation interventions in adults with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods Randomised controlled trials that compared web-based rehabilitation interventions with usual care, waiting list, no treatment or another web-based intervention in adults with rheumatoid arthritis were included. The outcomes were pain, function, quality of life, self-efficacy, rheumatoid arthritis knowledge, physical activity and adverse effects. Methodological quality was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and quality of evidence with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. Results Six source documents from four trials ( n = 567) focusing on self-management, health information or physical activity were identified. The effects of web-based rehabilitation interventions on pain, function, quality of life, self-efficacy, rheumatoid arthritis knowledge and physical activity are uncertain because of the very low quality of evidence mostly from small single trials. Adverse effects were not reported. Conclusion Large, well-designed trials are needed to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of web-based rehabilitation interventions in rheumatoid arthritis.

  • Methylene blue fluorescence of the ureter during colorectal surgery.

    29 June 2018

    BACKGROUND: Iatrogenic ureteric injury is a serious complication of colorectal surgery. Incidence is estimated to be between 0.3 and 1.5%. Of all ureteric injuries, 9% occur during colorectal procedures. Ureteric stents are utilised as a method to reduce the risk of injury; however, these are not without risk and do not guarantee prevention of injury. Fluorescence is a safe and effective alternative for intraoperative ureteric localisation. This proof of principle study aims to assess the use of methylene blue to fluoresce the ureter during colorectal surgery. METHOD: Patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery were included in this open label, non-randomised study. Methylene blue was administered intravenously at varying doses (0.25-1 mg/kg) over 5 min, 10-15 min prior to entering 'ureteric territory.' Fluorescence was assessed using the PINPOINT Deep Red laparoscopic system at fixed time points by the surgeon and an independent observer. RESULTS: 42 patients received methylene blue; 2 patients were excluded from analysis. Of the 69 ureters assessed, 64 were seen under fluorescence. Of these, 14 were not visible under white light. 50 ureters were observed with both fluorescence and white light with 14 of these being seen earlier with fluorescence. In ten cases, fluorescence revealed the ureter to be in a different location than suspected. CONCLUSION: Fluorescence is a promising method to allow visualisation of the ureter, where it is not identified easily under standard operative conditions, thereby improving safety and reducing operative time and difficulty.

  • Outcomes and Resource Use of Sepsis-associated Stays by Presence on Admission, Severity, and Hospital Type.

    27 June 2018

    OBJECTIVE: To establish a baseline for the incidence of sepsis by severity and presence on admission in acute care hospital settings before implementation of a broad sepsis screening and response initiative. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study using hospital discharge abstracts of 5672 patients, aged 18 years and above, with sepsis-associated stays between February 2012 and January 2013 at an academic medical center and 5 community hospitals in Texas. RESULTS: Sepsis was present on admission in almost 85% of cases and acquired in-hospital in the remainder. The overall inpatient death rate was 17.2%, but was higher in hospital-acquired sepsis (38.6%, medical; 29.2%, surgical) and Stages 2 (17.6%) and 3 (36.4%) compared with Stage 1 (5.9%). Patients treated at the academic medical center had a higher death rate (22.5% vs. 15.1%, P<0.001) and were more costly ($68,050±184,541 vs. $19,498±31,506, P<0.001) versus community hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: Greater emphasis is needed on public awareness of sepsis and the detection of sepsis in the prehospitalization and early hospitalization period. Hospital characteristics and case mix should be accounted for in cross-hospital comparisons of sepsis outcomes and costs.

  • Mapping Radiation Injury and Recovery in Bone Marrow Using 18F-FLT PET/CT and USPIO MRI in a Rat Model.

    27 June 2018

    UNLABELLED: We present and test the use of multimodality imaging as a topological tool to map the amount of the body exposed to ionizing radiation and the location of exposure, which are important indicators of survival and recovery. To achieve our goal, PET/CT imaging with 3'-deoxy-3'-(18)F-fluorothymidine ((18)F-FLT) was used to measure cellular proliferation in bone marrow (BM), whereas MRI using ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) particles provided noninvasive information on radiation-induced vascular damage. METHODS: Animals were x-ray-irradiated at a dose of 7.5 Gy with 1 of 3 radiation schemes-whole-body irradiation, half-body shielding (HBS), or 1-leg shielding (1LS)-and imaged repeatedly. The spatial information from the CT scan was used to segment the region corresponding to BM from the PET scan using algorithms developed in-house, allowing for quantification of proliferating cells, and BM blood volume was estimated by measuring the changes in the T2 relaxation rates (ΔR2) collected from MR scans. RESULTS: (18)F-FLT PET/CT imaging differentiated irradiated from unirradiated BM regions. Two days after irradiation, proliferation of 1LS animals was significantly lower than sham (P = 0.0001, femurs; P < 0.0001, tibias) and returned to sham levels by day 10 (P = 0.6344, femurs; P = 0.3962, tibias). The degree of shielding affected proliferation recovery, showing an increase in the irradiated BM of the femurs, but not the tibias, of HBS animals when compared with 1LS (P = 0.0310, femurs; P = 0.5832, tibias). MRI of irradiated spines detected radiation-induced BM vascular damage, measured by the significant increase in ΔR2 2 d after whole-body irradiation (P = 0.0022) and HBS (P = 0.0003) with a decreasing trend of values, returning to levels close to baseline over 10 d. Our data were corroborated using γ-counting and histopathology. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that (18)F-FLT PET/CT and USPIO MRI are valuable tools in mapping regional radiation exposure and the effects of radiation on BM. Analysis of the (18)F-FLT signal allowed for a clear demarcation of exposed BM regions and elucidated the kinetics of BM recovery, whereas USPIO MRI was used to assess vascular damage and recovery.

  • Humerus length evaluation in different ethnic groups.

    27 June 2018

    OBJECTIVE: Femoral length has gained much attention for its use as a marker for Down syndrome, and racial variation has been evaluated. We hypothesized that no racial differences in humerus length will be shown from 14 to 22 weeks' gestation. METHODS: Our sonography database was queried from January 1, 1994, to September 30, 2001, for obstetric sonographic examinations of singleton fetuses. Cases with incomplete data, fetal anomalies, and cases without documented ethnicity were excluded. Only 1 examination per fetus was used. Individual parameters were evaluated from 14 to 22 weeks' gestation in white non-Hispanic, Hispanic, African American, Asian, and Eastern Indian women. Linear regression was used to model the relation of humerus length to menstrual age and to compare the humerus length for gestational age among ethnic groups. We compared the sensitivity for Down syndrome detection from a standard expected humerus length formula and ethnic-specific formulas. RESULTS: We identified 1164 fetuses: 380 white, 224 Hispanic, 432 African American, 116 Asian, and 12 Eastern Indian. Comparing with white fetuses, we found differences in humerus length among African American (P < .001) and Asian (P < .001) fetuses but not among Hispanic fetuses (P = .98). The sensitivity for Down syndrome detection from standard and ethnic-specific formulas was identical. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, small differences in humerus length exist among ethnic groups. These differences did not affect the sensitivity of expected humerus length as a marker of Down syndrome in our diverse population.