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  • Prophylactic platelet transfusions prior to surgery for people with a low platelet count.

    12 December 2017

    This is a protocol for a Cochrane Review (Intervention). The objectives are as follows: To determine the clinical effectiveness and safety of prophylactic platelet transfusions prior to surgery for people with a low platelet count or platelet dysfunction (inherited or acquired).

  • Toxoplasmosis in female high school students, pregnant women and ruminants in Cyprus.

    12 January 2018

    BACKGROUND: The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is important to human and animal health worldwide. This is the first study of prevalence of infection with T. gondii and associated risk factors in human populations and small ruminants in Cyprus. METHODS: A random sample of 18 schools out of 46 participated: 1056 girls aged 16 to 18 years completed a questionnaire and were serologically tested for Toxoplasma between 2008 and 2011 (response rate 30%). In addition, infection with T. gondii laboratory results of 23 076 pregnant women tested between 2009 and 2014 were obtained from hospital records. Finally, 163 (out of 3123) farms were randomly sampled and blood samples from 515 sheep and 581 goats were obtained. RESULTS: Estimated seropositivity prevalence in female students was 6.5% (95% CI 4.3 to 8.7%) and 18% (95% CI 17 to 19%) in pregnant women. Overall, 40.1% of the ruminants tested were seropositive (95% CI 37.2% to 43.0%). Seropositivity differed according to geographical region in all three groups. CONCLUSIONS: Further studies are needed to investigate the differences between regions that lead to differing prevalence levels and patterns between ruminants and humans so that health education policies can be developed to help prevent infection and reduce environmental contamination.

  • Arthroscopic subacromial decompression for subacromial shoulder pain (CSAW): a multicentre, pragmatic, parallel group, placebo-controlled, three-group, randomised surgical trial.

    8 January 2018

    BACKGROUND: Arthroscopic sub-acromial decompression (decompressing the sub-acromial space by removing bone spurs and soft tissue arthroscopically) is a common surgery for subacromial shoulder pain, but its effectiveness is uncertain. We did a study to assess its effectiveness and to investigate the mechanism for surgical decompression. METHODS: We did a multicentre, randomised, pragmatic, parallel group, placebo-controlled, three-group trial at 32 hospitals in the UK with 51 surgeons. Participants were patients who had subacromial pain for at least 3 months with intact rotator cuff tendons, were eligible for arthroscopic surgery, and had previously completed a non-operative management programme that included exercise therapy and at least one steroid injection. Exclusion criteria included a full-thickness torn rotator cuff. We randomly assigned participants (1:1:1) to arthroscopic subacromial decompression, investigational arthroscopy only, or no treatment (attendance of one reassessment appointment with a specialist shoulder clinician 3 months after study entry, but no intervention). Arthroscopy only was a placebo as the essential surgical element (bone and soft tissue removal) was omitted. We did the randomisation with a computer-generated minimisation system. In the surgical intervention groups, patients were not told which type of surgery they were receiving (to ensure masking). Patients were followed up at 6 months and 1 year after randomisation; surgeons coordinated their waiting lists to schedule surgeries as close as possible to randomisation. The primary outcome was the Oxford Shoulder Score (0 [worst] to 48 [best]) at 6 months, analysed by intention to treat. The sample size calculation was based upon a target difference of 4·5 points (SD 9·0). This trial has been registered at, number NCT01623011. FINDINGS: Between Sept 14, 2012, and June 16, 2015, we randomly assigned 313 patients to treatment groups (106 to decompression surgery, 103 to arthroscopy only, and 104 to no treatment). 24 [23%], 43 [42%], and 12 [12%] of the decompression, arthroscopy only, and no treatment groups, respectively, did not receive their assigned treatment by 6 months. At 6 months, data for the Oxford Shoulder Score were available for 90 patients assigned to decompression, 94 to arthroscopy, and 90 to no treatment. Mean Oxford Shoulder Score did not differ between the two surgical groups at 6 months (decompression mean 32·7 points [SD 11·6] vs arthroscopy mean 34·2 points [9·2]; mean difference -1·3 points (95% CI -3·9 to 1·3, p=0·3141). Both surgical groups showed a small benefit over no treatment (mean 29·4 points [SD 11·9], mean difference vs decompression 2·8 points [95% CI 0·5-5·2], p=0·0186; mean difference vs arthroscopy 4·2 [1·8-6·6], p=0·0014) but these differences were not clinically important. There were six study-related complications that were all frozen shoulders (in two patients in each group). INTERPRETATION: Surgical groups had better outcomes for shoulder pain and function compared with no treatment but this difference was not clinically important. Additionally, surgical decompression appeared to offer no extra benefit over arthroscopy only. The difference between the surgical groups and no treatment might be the result of, for instance, a placebo effect or postoperative physiotherapy. The findings question the value of this operation for these indications, and this should be communicated to patients during the shared treatment decision-making process. FUNDING: Arthritis Research UK, the National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre, and the Royal College of Surgeons (England).

  • The role of national registries in improving patient safety for hip and knee replacements.

    29 December 2017

    BACKGROUND: The serious adverse events associated with metal on metal hip replacements have highlighted the importance of improving methods for monitoring surgical implants. The new European Union (EU) device regulation will enforce post-marketing surveillance based on registries among other surveillance tools. Europe has a common regulatory environment, a common market for medical devices, and extensive experience with joint replacement registries. In this context, we elaborate how joint replacement registries, while building on existing structure and data, can better ensure safety and balance risks and benefits. MAIN TEXT: Actions to improve registry-based implant surveillance include: enriching baseline and diversifying outcomes data collection; improving methodology to limit bias; speeding-up failure detection by active real-time monitoring; implementing risk-benefit analysis; coordinating collaboration between registries; and translating knowledge gained from the data into clinical decision-making and public health policy. CONCLUSIONS: The changes proposed here will improve patient safety, enforce the application of the new legal EU requirements, augment evidence, improve clinical decision-making, facilitate value-based health-care delivery, and provide up-to-date guidance for public health.

  • Implementation of interval walking training in patients with type 2 diabetes in Denmark: rationale, design, and baseline characteristics.

    29 December 2017

    Promoting physical activity is a first-line choice of treatment for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, there is a need for more effective tools and technologies to facilitate structured lifestyle interventions and to ensure a better compliance, sustainability, and health benefits of exercise training in patients with T2D. The InterWalk initiative and its innovative application (app) for smartphones described in this study were developed by the Danish Centre for Strategic Research in T2D aiming at implementing, testing, and validating interval walking in patients with T2D in Denmark. The interval walking training approach consists of repetitive 3-minute cycles of slow and fast walking with simultaneous intensity guiding, based on the exercise capacity of the user. The individual intensity during slow and fast walking is determined by a short initial self-conducted and audio-guided fitness test, which combined with automated audio instructions strives to motivate the individual to adjust the intensity to the predetermined individualized walking intensities. The InterWalk app data are collected prospectively from all users and will be linked to the unique Danish nationwide databases and administrative registries, allowing extensive epidemiological studies of exercise in patients with T2D, such as the level of adherence to InterWalk training and long-term effectiveness surveys of important health outcomes, including cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Currently, the InterWalk app has been downloaded by >30,000 persons, and the achieved epidemiological data quality is encouraging. Of the 9,466 persons providing personal information, 80% of the men and 62% women were overweight or obese (body mass index ≥25). The InterWalk project represents a contemporary technology-driven public health approach to monitor real-life exercise adherence and to propagate improved health through exercise intervention in T2D and in the general population.

  • Does marriage protect against hospitalization with pneumonia? A population-based case-control study.

    30 November 2017

    BACKGROUND: To reduce the increasing burden of pneumonia hospitalizations, we need to understand their determinants. Being married may decrease the risk of severe infections, due to better social support and healthier lifestyle. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this population-based case-control study, we identified all adult patients with a first-time pneumonia-related hospitalization between 1994 and 2008 in Northern Denmark. For each case, ten sex- and age-matched population controls were selected from Denmark's Civil Registration System. We performed conditional logistic regression analysis to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for pneumonia hospitalization among persons who were divorced, widowed, or never married, as compared with married persons, adjusting for age, sex, 19 different comorbidities, alcoholism-related conditions, immunosuppressant use, urbanization, and living with small children. RESULTS: The study included 67,162 patients with a pneumonia-related hospitalization and 671,620 matched population controls. Compared with controls, the pneumonia patients were more likely to be divorced (10% versus 7%) or never married (13% versus 11%). Divorced and never-married patients were much more likely to have previous diagnoses of alcoholism-related conditions (18% and 11%, respectively) compared with married (3%) and widowed (6%) patients. The adjusted OR for pneumonia-related hospitalization was increased, at 1.29 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25-1.33) among divorced; 1.15 (95% CI: 1.12-1.17) among widowed; and 1.33 (95% CI: 1.29-1.37) among never-married individuals as compared with those who were married. CONCLUSION: Married individuals have a decreased risk of being hospitalized with pneumonia compared with never-married, divorced, and widowed patients.

  • Prognostic Modelling

    6 August 2015

    Our prognostic modelling team performs external validation of existing predictive models and builds new models with clinical data

  • Research Synthesis

    6 August 2015

  • Methodology Research

    6 August 2015

    We improve the design and analysis of medical research through applied statistics research. We focus on four key areas related to the medical research that we conduct.

  • Reporting and Outcomes Guidelines

    6 August 2015

    We develop reporting and outcomes guidelines, and monitor their uptake and usage

  • EQUATOR Centre UK

    6 August 2015

    The EQUATOR Network is an international initiative set up to help researchers and journals to publish well-reported, reliable, and usable research papers. The UK EQUATOR Centre, based in the CSM in NDORMS, is the head office and flagship centre of the EQUATOR Network.

  • Using Statistics in Primary Medical Research

    6 August 2015

    CSM medical statisticians conduct clinical and nonclinical medical research, getting involved from study design and funding applications to analysis and publication

  • South Central Research Design Service

    3 August 2015

    The RDS provides free advice on research design to researchers in the South Central region who are developing proposals for national, peer-reviewed funding competitions for applied health or social care research

  • Royal Statistical Society - Oxford local group

    4 August 2015

    Academics and non-academics with an interest in statistics are invited to join our annual programme of talks and lectures on statistical topics

  • Ethics Committees

    9 September 2015

    CSM members are consultant statisticians on research ethics committees, ensuring that research respects the dignity, rights, and welfare of its human participants

  • Trial Steering Committees

    9 September 2015

    CSM members serve on trial steering committees, which provide overall supervision of trials.